Volkswagen Beetle (1938-1979)
Article by Mark Trotta
Not only is the air-cooled, rear-engine VW Beetle one of the most iconic cars in classic car history, it is the fourth highest-selling automobile of all time. During the original Beetle's 65-year production run, more than 21 million were built world-wide.
Volkswagen Beetle History
In the 1930s, Dr. Ferdinand Porsche started with a steel platform chassis and added all wheel independent torsion-bar suspension. The rear-engine platform gave excellent traction, as well as effortless steering.
Styled by Austrian designer Erwin Komenda, the shape of the Beetle was for strength, not looks; a curved piece of metal simply has more strength than a flat one does. The body attaches with eighteen bolts to the chassis which featured a central structural tunnel. The small two-door car could accommodate four passengers while providing storage under the front hood and behind the rear seat.
Production began in 1946, and although popular early-on in Europe, Volkswagen sold just two Beetles in the U.S. in 1949-50, 551 cars in 1951, and 601 cars in 1952.
Although less powerful than other cars in its class, the VW Bug engine was simple, economical, and easy to repair. Air-cooled engines do not have water pumps, thermostats, hoses, or a radiator, and the dry weight of an air-cooled engine is lighter than a comparable water-cooled engine.
The VW Beetle owes much of its success not only to innovative engineering, but to innovative advertising as well. After World-War-Two, there was still animosity against Germany - Volkswagen needed to "reinvent" itself if it was to be successful in the U.S. market.
Volkswagen searched and found an advertising agency that would create ads focused on building brand advocates. Conceived by the New York agency Doyle, Dane, and Bernbach, the advertising campaign began in 1959 and was one of the best in the world during the sixties. Unlike glamorous, over-the-top American car ads, VW Beetle ads were usually in black and white and were witty and funny. It helped the Beetle to become the biggest selling foreign-made car in America.
Volkswagen Beetle 1960-1969
The total import car share of the U.S. market in 1960 was just 7.58 percent. With 159,995 sold, the VW Bug was most popular - more than twice that of second-place Renault.
The decade of the sixties saw many changes to the Beetle. In 1960, pull-type outside door handles replaced the push-button type. Engine size increased to 1200cc in 1961. The fuel pump was relocated to right of distributor and the generator was now separate from the block.
For 1962, a fuel gauge replaced the original reserve tap. Glass tail-light lenses were changed to plastic. The electrical system would remain 6-volts until 1967.
Read: Convert 6-Volt Car to 12-Volts
Early Beetle parts were easily interchangeable from year to year. So much that, a Los Angeles Volkswagen dealer was caught installing 1963 taillights on 1959 Beetles and selling them as new cars.
The 1300cc engine was introduced in the 1966 model year. Outer door handles changed from square pushbutton to round pushbutton. Locking front seat backs were introduced.
Automotive restorers love old Beetles, partially because engines and related components are interchangeable between all air-cooled Beetles. Even if an engine block is cracked or damaged, replacement cases are readily available in both cast (original) and aluminum (performance).
Shop: VW Beetle Replacement Engine Case
Note: Engine year and displacement can be found on the engine ID number, stamped into the case just under the alternator/generator stand.
In 1967, the Beetle's engine was enlarged again to 1493cc, now producing 53 horsepower. The 1200cc and 1300cc engines continued to be used outside the U.S. A new dual brake cylinder system was adopted. Other improvements included back-up lights, door lock buttons, and a 12-volt electrical system.
Foreign car sales were 10.2% of the U.S. market in 1968. The VW Bug was still the most popular imported car. To comply with U.S. regulations, emission controls started appearing on engines.
An external fuel filler was a welcome addition in 1968, as drivers no longer had to lift the trunk-lid to gain access to the gas cap. Larger taillights incorporated the tail, brake, and backup lights into a single unit. Crash safety was improved with a collapsible steering column.
Throughout its production, VW produced the Beetle with a four-speed manual transmission. Beginning in 1967 in Europe and 1968 in the United States, a semi-automatic transmission was offered. Marketed as Automatic Stick Shift (also called AutoStick) there was no clutch pedal, but the driver still had to move the shift lever to choose between the three forward gears.
The 1969 Volkswagen Beetle drivetrain was upgraded with double-jointed rear axles which improved handling and stability. A locking steering wheel and fuel door were added, and the trunk release was moved to the glove box. Rear windows on sedans now had a defroster, and a day/night rearview mirror was added.
Herbie The Love Bug
In 1969, movie-goers were introduced to Herbie The Love Bug, a 1963 VW Beetle who was able to think and drive on his own. Neither Herbie nor driver Jim Douglas ever revealed their secret that #53 was no ordinary car. Herbie starred in six Disney movies.
Produced from 1971 to 1979, the Super Beetle had new rounder fenders, a larger hood, and a redesigned front valance. Changes were also made to the body and inner fenders to accommodate the mounting of MacPherson front struts. The new instrument panel was padded. A 1600cc engine with dual port cylinder heads provided more power.
Read: Restore An Old Beetle
An 86% increase of trunk storage space included mounting the spare tire horizontally in a recessed wheel well under the cargo area in the front trunk floor. The jack was moved to under the rear seat and the air pressure powered windshield washer bottle was relocated to the right inner fender. This was the most costly and extensive revision of the Beetle since it was first launched.
Starting in 1973, Super Beetles were fitted with a curved windshield, which gave a 42% increase in visibility and improved the aerodynamics of the car. In 1974, the old-style generator was finally replaced with a modern alternator.
Easy to fold up and down, the "topless" version of the Beetle was built at the Karmann of Osnabruck facility. Production of the convertible Beetle began in 1953 and continued to be imported to the U.S. until 1979. In total, 330,281 convertible Beetles were built.
During the seventies, competition from both American and Japanese economy cars hit VW Beetle sales hard. The new Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto offered U.S. car buyers room and fuel economy at a low price. Beetle sales dropped by almost half in 1975, from 791,023 the previous year to only 441,116 this year.
The last Beetle rolled off the production line in Wolfsburg in 1974, allowing production of the new water-cooled, front-engine, front-drive Golf (sold in the U.S. as the Rabbit). Beetle production continued in smaller numbers at other German factories. When the cancellation of the VW Beetle was finally announced, production was slated to end July 31st 1979, but continued until January of 1980 to fill the thousands of orders received from all over the world.
Mainstream production of the Beetle soon shifted to Brazil and Mexico. The last model was produced in Puebla, Mexico, in 2003. In all, over 21 million Volkswagen Beetles were produced from 1938 to 2003.
Most Produced Car In History
When the 15,007,034th car rolled off the line at Wolfsburg in 1972, the Volkswagen Beetle surpassed the Model-T Ford as the longest-running and most-manufactured car in history. Since then, it's fallen a few notches to number four, with 21 million plus sold around the world.
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